The Bare Root

Landscape Design from the Bottom Up

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Find Your Garden Style

Find Your Garden Style

Design Your Garden as a Complement to Your Home

Most homeowners understand the many housing styles—Spanish or Mediterranean, English Tudor, French Country, and Contemporary, to name the most popular ones. Gardens are no different. And although matching a garden to the style of the house creates a cohesive whole, there are times when two different styles can work together well, as long as there’s some commonality such as a palette or choice of materials. Understand the different possibilities that each style garden is known for—the favorite materials, colors, and plants, so you can make a wise choice. If in doubt, peruse garden and architecture books for ideas. And definitely take liberties and mix and match elements to let your own garden style evolve rather than strive for complete authenticity.03-091 BBB AFTER

Mediterranean or Spanish. This style garden is very casual and loose and works well in a warm climate where materials generally are rustic and plantings are big and lush. Walks may be lined with natural flagstone, terracotta tiles, or travertine; walls may be constructed from natural rock or hand-troweled plaster colored or left unstained; and rocks and boulders may be used lavishly as key accents. For plantings, think about drought-tolerant choices that require little water and maintenance because of the hotter climates. Fruitless olive trees, crepe myrtles, native oaks, lavender, carpet roses, salvia, sages, flax, coral bells, ferns, and some palms such as Sago palms all work well. The palette generally veers toward hotter orange, red, and yellow hues. GREEN? For furnishings, think about wrought iron tables and chairs, stone tables and table tops and dark stained natural wood.

IMG_0026Tropical. While this isn’t a style of architecture, it does reflect a warm weather outdoor look, filled with sun-loving plants, colorful, big flowers, and exotic lighting and colorful floral patterns . Because of the warm weather, these gardens are designed for year-round pleasure, but include some areas in shade for relief. Flagstone, bluestone, or slate may be used for paving, often with oversized boulders and rocks for accents. Fireplaces and fire pits are common features, often constructed from stucco and rocks. Water is an essential element that might show up in the form of a swimming pool, spa, pond, stream, waterfall, or fountain. Big urns, umbrellas, and teak furnishings are other essentials. Popular plants are oversized palms, bananas, cannas, hibiscus, citrus trees, and exotic vegetables. For color, go bold with reds, purples, yellow and golds as well as coral and lime green.

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Traditional.  Whether it’s an English Tudor or Colonial, American Colonial, or French Country or Provencal house, the garden look has a classic, old-world feeling with much more structure, more rectilinear than curved designs, and a repetition in the choice of plants and materials rather than too many different selections. Garden walls may be built from plaster, ledgestone, or brick, and topped with slate or flagstone for a precise, finished look. Fountains or water features may be quite stylized and elegant and constructed from concrete or cast iron and often in multiple tiers. Fireplaces tend to be large, also stylized, with mantels, all built from stone or brick, sometimes in multiple hues. Plantings also are quite formal picks such as iceberg or hedge roses in classic white, pink, or red colors, typically plant in organized rows rather than loose masses, even for cutting gardens. Other favorites include boxwood hedges, clipped topiaries, espaliered fruit trees and annuals such as lobelia, and alyssum. Lots of green lawn is an essential, so are terraces paved in classic flagstone, gravel or crushed granite, or brick materials, which may be repeated in walks and paths.

03-003 BBB AFTERContemporary. Minimalism is the mantra whether it’s for the palette, materials, or design. Paving may be constructed from a stained or poured concrete, often scored in a simple grid pattern, or travertine, slate, or large expanse of gravel or crushed granite. The plant palette tends toward an Asian Zen look with lots of grasses and noninvasive bamboo, weeping serpentine cedars, and a bonsai tree or two. A few rocks, particularly large ones, become a major focal point. Colors tend to be monochromatic, although a bright accent might be included for contrast. Water features are common for the tranquil look and sound they introduce, typically in the form of waterfalls, streams, and fountains. Less is always more, even when it comes to furnishings, lighting, and accessories.


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Building Guidelines: How to Begin

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Have you ever noticed that many house facades are aligned uniformly and that most neighborhoods have a consistency of house palettes? This is not your imagination. The alignment of the houses is called a setback and is the required distance that a building must be located away from the streets and from other structures. The similar house colors might be a result of a neighborhood Covenants, Conditions & Restrictions, called for short a CC&R.

In developing a master plan for your garden, you, and any professional landscape designer, landscape architect, or nursery specialist you hire, should carefully decide on your garden plans. Any hard- or softscape materials and designs such as terraces, fences, flower borders, swimming pools, hot tubs, tennis courts, and gazebos, must be built or planted according to your  county, city, or neighborhood association ordinances.imgres

Building setbacks are controlled by a planning department in your county, municipality, or even town. If you live in a town or city, setbacks are usually determined by the community’s building department.  Setbacks regulate outdoor construction such as how tall structures can stand and how close to your neighbor’s fence line they can be built. Ordinances apply to gardens as well—for instance, how much of the grounds can be covered by shade, how high fences can be, whether shade structures must be attached to homes or can be free-standing. And there are many more to be considered; why you’ll need to talk with someone before starting and read the fine print.

CC & Rs are the rules of neighborhood associations and can be quite strict. Some CC & Rs may limit house paint color choices, particularly for new planned or historic communities where uniformity might be desired. A rainbow of wild hues mixed together might look terrific and enliven the hilly streets of San Francisco, but in your little cul-de-sac of similar stucco homes, they might prove downright distasteful. Your neighbors may choose to paint their Mediterranean style home lime green or lavender!


CC & Rs can control neighborhood noise as well, by dictating times of day when homeowners can use their pool or power lawn mower. As it pertains to your garden design, CC & Rs may have rules about both hardscape and soft scape by regulating materials such as what types of rock you can use, the architecture of your structures—whether it can be Asian inspired in a Mediterranean-style neighborhood, and what tree and plant species you can plant. Most neighborhood associations insist you submit for approval a complete landscaping plan to scale detailing the elements you intend to incorporate. You may not find all the rules appealing, but that’s why you need to know this in advance—even before you move in!

For both setbacks and CC & Rs, there are fees for review of your plans and your plans must be approved before any building can be started. During construction, inspectors will be sent to your site to enforce the building permits, signing off on each phase of your project. You also need to know and observe community restrictions about installing underground utilities for electric, gas, and water lines for barbecues, lighting, and pool heating systems. A wildlife preserve bordering your site may also limit your landscaping plans to protect the native flora and fauna for current homeowners, as well as future generations, and the conservation of the land in general.

IMG_4983There are even more potential regulations to heed.  As examples, you may need a grading permit depending on how many cubic yards of ground you plan to move, while hauling permits are required when removing a large amount of soil or debris.  Constructing retaining walls higher than 6 feet requires structural calculations by a licensed engineer.  Raising poultry, bees, or other animals on your land may require a conditional use permit.  A shed for storage or a playhouse are considered accessory buildings that demand their own approvals.

As you now understand, there are many challenges to consider before you—or your garden professional–put your shovel in the ground. Proper planning is crucial before you do proper planting, so everyone is happy—most of all you, so you enjoy your site fully, but also your neighbors and community leaders.

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IMG_0035Gone are the days when a nice green lawn, a few flowering trees, some evergreen shrubs, some flowers come spring and summer, and some sort of patio or deck, represented a site with great curb appeal. Today, with so much interest in spending time outdoors, the sky’s literally the limit for how much you can include in even a tiny site and spend. An outdoor kitchen? Check. A shaded terrace with Italian-style pergola draped in wisteria? Check. A water feature? Check. Both a vegetable garden and colorful English-style cutting garden? Check, check.

How much a landscape project costs should reflect what you can afford realistically and what problems need to be solved for your yard.  For example, do you need to address erosion or drainage? You also need to factor in the type of neighborhood you live in so you don’t overimprove your yard, if you want to maximize equity in your home.  Consider most what you’d enjoy having on the site. If you aren’t into cooking outdoors, don’t bother with an elaborate built-in kitchen that rivals one you have indoors and maybe make do just with a barbecue for an occasional cookout. Similarly, if you dislike spending money to keep your grass green and weed-free, there’s no point in planting a gorgeous Kentucky blue-grass lawn that requires regular seeding, watering, and mowing. Consider instead a low-growing groundcover like creeping thyme or vinca minor or even adding more gravel for a rustic country look. But if you really love the sound of water, go ahead, and install anything from a small pot fountain to a waterfall, to a pond, or to a swimming pool.1M

Now, it’s time to start planning:

            Develop a budget. Decide on the amount of money you’d like to spend in total for materials, labor, and annual maintenance. In the ideal garden world, it’s 10% to 15% of the value of your house or about $35,000 to $52,000 for a $350,000 home. Remember, that there is no reason you can’t spend this money in phases—say, over four years, so you work first on the front, or back and then each side yard. You’ll feel the financial hit less.

02-022 BBB BEFORE            Determine the most important problems in your yard.  For example, if you have drainage or erosion challenges, your landscaping plans must correct these or you will lose money on your project.  If you have a privacy problem (your neighbors look directly onto the patio where you entertain), a privacy screen should be part of your objective in redesigning the site.

             Decide what you want to install or redo. Look at your site carefully and at different times of the year and day and night. Scan garden and home Web sites such as,,, and Study garden books in your library or favorite bookstore. Clip, print, and xerox favorite designs—that bluestone patio, wildflower meadow, rose garden–to show the professional with whom you work. Make a wish list of all you would like to include. Don’t hold back; there’s always time for cutting your choices when bids come in.

 02-024 BBB           Decide whom to hire. Even do-it-yourselfers will hire professionals for large hardscape elements or can benefit from overall advice.  After securing recommendations from friends and area nurseries, interview a few possible choices in your yard so they can see it firsthand.  Even paying a landscape designer or architect for a consultation can help you tap into a team of experts to install and oversee maintenance. The main difference between a landscape designer and architect is primarily the architect’s schooling and licensing after passing a state board. Sometimes you actually will save money having a professional look at your site and make specific suggestions.

Key questions to pose:

  •   Will you provide referrals;
  •   Are you licensed, bonded, and carry insurance;
  •   May I see your portfolio and visit any finished sites in person;
  •   How do you charge—by the project or hour—and does that fee include a drawing with detailed list of plantings and  hardscape materials;
  •   What are some ideas you have besides my wish list;
  •   Do you see any site problems we need to solve and how would you recommend addressing them;
  •   Do you spot any potential challenges or problems at my site such as poor drainage and lack of privacy;
  •   Do you think my total budget is feasible for what I want done?
  •   Do you guarantee workmanship, including plants, and for how long;
  •   What maintenance is required for all the plantings and hardscape, and how much time might I need to take care of all weekly or monthly or seasonally?
  •   Will I also need a better or new irrigation system and what type should I install?
  •   How long should the design and installation process take?
  •   How many subcontractors will be working, what will be their daily hours, and will they clean up daily.

Besides hard dollars and cents, part of your hiring decision should also hinge on that intangible of chemistry. You’ll work together for months, and this person will be around for years to come in most cases.

           landscape plan Get a master plan drawn. This is key for the overall concept, particularly if you’re working in phases. Many designers won’t just list their suggested plantings, but draw a site plan with specific plants and other features they recommend such as new walls, walks, irrigation system.  Getting plan is like going on a driving vacation with a good set of maps.  Driving without a map is not efficient, you get lost, you waste gas (i.e., money!) and it takes longer to get where you are going.  In spite of the up front cost, landscape plans can make your overall budget smaller, improve communication with contractors, and can help you figure out how to best phase in your project over months to years.

            Get construction bids. It is advisable to get at least two to three bids on construction because bids can vary widely and you will need these comparisons to decide on the scope of work.  Once the numbers come back, you’ll know if you need to cut back. Two examples. You might decide to install a pea-gravel terrace instead of a bluestone patio, since the costs vary so much. For a 10’ by 12’ patio, pea gravel might cost $2000 for labor and materials while the bluestone will be at least six times that, or $12,000. Such estimates will vary somewhat by the area of the country where you live since materials and labor can be quite different. Or, think about planting smaller trees and waiting for them to grow—if you’re patient. A 6’ tall box tree with 1’ canopy will cost between $100 and $150 retail while a much taller 8’ to 12’ tall box tree with 3’ spread will retail for about $450, and an even bigger 20’ high tree with 8’ to 10’ spread will be about $5,000. Planting vegetables or any flowers yourself also will cut your labor costs, and can be a lot of fun.

           Get your job installed and revisit possibilities. Investing in hardscape, the functional part of your yard, is the most important and lasting element, so be sure to plan this carefully. You will always, over time, add plants or accessorize your garden to fit your changing tastes and needs. You may find there’s not enough seasonal bloom during all four seasons so will add different plants, or that there’s so much noise from neighbors that you want to introduce a fountain to block it out.

           Make more tweaks over time. Gardens also rarely look great overnight. Be patient even if you’re not the patient type.  Remember the adage: the first year they sleep; the second year they creep; the third year they leap. Give your plants time to fill in and adapt to your site; they’re living, breathing creatures. The best gardens mature and evolve slowly, and as you learn more you’ll want to make changes, probably yearly. Too many tomatoes in Barbara’s yard led to lots of gazpacho, spaghetti sauce, and Caprese salads–yum, but it also convinced her to remove one bed of tomatoes and add more peppers, eggplant, lettuce, and more herbs next spring. Michael has found through the years that he needed more night lighting since he likes to entertain outdoors. He’s also come to understand his site’s microclimates and as a result refined his plant selection to thrive better. The pots flanking a fountain originally contained dwarf citrus trees until the garden became too shaded and they didn’t fare well. He switched to sago palms, usually very slow growing, which fared so well in the shade that they grew too big, overwhelming the small patio space. He recently replaced those with fragrant camellias. Experts continue to learn, too!

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            Maintain it lovingly.  Ask your professional gardener in advance about maintenance since if you don’t enjoy tending your garden, you’ll need to hire someone, which will add up in costs. Or, install a garden that requires less upkeep, though every yard demands some chores on a regular basis. “Nothing is totally maintenance-free unless you pave it and paint it green,” Michael says. But then you’ll eventually have to repaint since even paint fades over time!

Winter is the best time to budget and plan, so get going! Some garden pros even will discount services before the rush-rush of spring.

(Photography by Michael Glassman)


Do it Yourself: Garden & Landscape Design

IMG_5305Welcome to our Blog!

Spending time outdoors has become one of the great passions of today’s homeowners. Many have discovered the joy of gardening, growing their own food and herbs—even grapes for wine making–and landscaping for aesthetics, recreation, and resale. Also, neighbors will love you more when you improve your property’s curb appeal in the front, along the sides, and out back.

But getting started can be tough. First, there’s the basic question of what to tackle , and in what order? Add proper irrigation, plant flowers, seed a lawn, get rid of a lawn, reseal a driveway, install a walk, prune dead limbs, remove dead trees, plant trees, and so on with many other tasks to get done.

Finding the right help requires the same sort of due diligence that you need to undertake any interior projects:  painting, resanding and staining hardwood floorboards, or constructing an addition. In the case of your site, you have lots of options regarding who will take charge:  a gardener, contractor, certified landscape architect or designer, local nursery, or certified arborist. All offer different expertise, charge a range of prices (typically by the hour or project), and each should know which permits are needed to meet your community’s codes and setbacks.

And then, there’s the nitty-gritty matter of how much to spend in total to be sure you don’t overspend. Surveys like the annual “Cost vs. Value” report from Remodeling magazine will help guide you regarding how much a mid-range and upscale landscape project—perhaps, building a wood or composite desk–usually costs in different parts of the country, as well as how much you’re likely to recoup when you sell your home.

But these types of surveys won’t inform you if your outdoor projects make sense for your pocketbook, your home, and your neighborhood, and most homeowners tend to underspend in relationship to the value of their house. Generally, landscape experts recommend setting aside 10% to 15% of your home’s value for outside landscaping, which includes the soft areas—lawn, flowers, shrubs–and the hardscape—patios, paving, shade structures.   This can mean as much as $50,000 to $75,000 for a $500,000 home. Ouch!

466705_399745816722726_1124688577_oIf that’s way out of your budget, don’t despair; you can cut back and prioritize what your yard most needs or what interests you, or you can phase in work, which means tackling the front first, then the back, and lastly the side yards, which usually are less important. You can even phase in one area–laying the hardscape the first year, planting trees the next, and then finally putting in the flowers and accessories. There’s no single rule of thumb regarding green thumbs.

We’re here to help you spend more pleasurable time in your yard, so you don’t feel that you have to hop on a plane to get away and relax or head to that expensive neighborhood florist or vegetable market to have freshly cut, fragrant bouquets and healthy, tasty produce. We’re going to take you through the process of working on your yard, from the bare roots and ground up to the flourishing plantings and attractive hardscape you will love as it evolves and guides you. And we hope you’ll email us with suggestions on topics and problems you would like to have us cover. We’re here to help.